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About Diabetes 

Diabetes and Your Health

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Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

If you’re interested in preventing type 2 diabetes, this guide can help you get started. Congratulations on taking the first step! By reading this, you’re already on your way.

Prediabetes puts you on the road to possibly getting type 2 diabetes. Find out now, in less than 1 minute, if you may have prediabetes by taking the Prediabetes Risk Test. If your result shows you’re at high risk for type 2 diabetes, talk to your doctor about getting a simple blood sugar test to confirm it. Then, if you’re diagnosed with prediabetes, consider joining a lifestyle change program offered by the National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP). This program is proven to cut the risk for type 2 diabetes in half.

Not quite ready to join a lifestyle change program? Or want a jumpstart before your program begins? Use this guide to help you take the first steps toward preventing type 2 diabetes.

Why is prevention so important? Because type 2 diabetes is a serious, chronic health condition that can lead to other serious health issues such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, and kidney failure. If you can prevent or even delay getting type 2 diabetes, you can lower your risk for all those other conditions.

By making some healthy changes, including eating healthier and getting active, you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes and improve your physical and mental health overall.

And you don’t have to wait to feel the benefits—when you start making healthy changes, you get rewards right away. After taking just one walk, your blood sugar goes down. Make physical activity a habit and see how your sleep improves. Enjoy the taste of fresh, healthy food. Figure out what to do with all of your extra energy. Maybe even get closer to friends and family if you invite them along for the ride!

Read More HERE

Source: CDC

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Understanding Juvenile Type 2 Diabetes 

There’s a growing type 2 diabetes problem in our young people. But parents can help turn the tide with healthy changes that are good for the whole family.

Until recently, young children and teens almost never got type 2 diabetes, which is why it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. Now, about one-third of American youth are overweight, a problem closely related to the increase in kids with type 2 diabetes, some as young as 10 years old.

Weight Matters

People who are overweight—especially if they have excess belly fat—are more likely to have insulin resistance, kids included. Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into cells for use as energy. Because of heredity (traits inherited from family members) or lifestyle (eating too much and moving too little), cells can stop responding normally to insulin. That causes the pancreas to make more insulin to try to get cells to respond and take in blood sugar.

As long as enough insulin is produced, blood sugar levels remain normal. This can go on for several years, but eventually the pancreas can’t keep up. Blood sugar starts to rise, first after meals and then all the time. Now the stage is set for type 2 diabetes.

Insulin resistance usually doesn’t have any symptoms, though some kids develop patches of thickened, dark, velvety skin called acanthosis nigricans, usually in body creases and folds such as the back of the neck or armpits. They may also have other conditions related to insulin resistance, including:

Activity Matters

Being physically active lowers the risk for type 2 diabetes because it helps the body use insulin better, decreasing insulin resistance.

Learn more about preventing diabetes in Kids HERE

Source: CDC

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Dangerous Epidemic

A Dangerous Epidemic

In the United States, 34.2 million people--just over 1 in 10--have diabetes.  In addition, about 88 million adults--approximately 1 in three--have prediabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020.The report also found that new diabetes cases were higher among non-Hispanic Asians and non-Hispanic whites. 

Diabetes occurs because of defects in the body's ability to produce or use insulin—a hormone released into the blood to control glucose (sugar) levels and the amount of glucose transported into cells as an energy source. If the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or if the cells do not respond appropriately to insulin, glucose can't get into the cells and the blood sugar level gets too high. High blood sugar can lead to devastating health problems, including heart disease, blindness, kidney disease, stroke, amputation, and death.

Who has diabetes? According to the National Health Interview Survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Census Bureau:

  • 14.7% of American Indians/Alaska natives

  • 12.5% of Hispanics

  • 11.7% of non-Hispanic blacks

  • 9.2% of Asian Americans

  • 7.5% of non-Hispanic whites 18 and older

Why these groups are more at risk is a complex question with no simple answer. For the most part, it's related to both environmental and genetic factors. 

Knowing your risk factors for diabetes is a crucial step toward an early diagnosis, which can give people the tools to prevent the disease from progressing.

It's also important for people with diabetes to report any safety concerns with their medications or devices (for example, glucose monitors) to MedWatch, FDA's Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program to report a problem.

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Adolescents and Diabetes

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes.


With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood.

Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well.

Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk.


To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children

  • Have them maintain a healthy weight

  • Be sure they are physically active

  • Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods

  • Limit time with the TV, computer, and video

  • Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin.

  • Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin.

  • A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes.

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Diabetes and Mental Health

This study examines baseline levels and correlates of diabetes-related emotional distress among inner-city African Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, which measures diabetes-related emotional distress, was administered to 180 African American and Hispanic adults participating in the REACH Detroit Partnership.


We examined bivariate and multivariate associations between emotional distress and biological, psychosocial, and quality of health care variables for African Americans and Hispanics. Scores were significantly higher among Hispanics than African Americans. Demographic factors were stronger predictors of emotional distress for Hispanics than for African Americans. Daily hassles, physician support, and perceived seriousness and understanding of diabetes were significant for African Americans.


Source: National Library of Medicine.  Content produced by the National Library of Medicine is carefully reviewed by scientists and other experts.

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Diabetes, Medications and Travel

Taking special care when traveling with diabetes

Be sure to have a complete medical exam well before you travel to make sure your diabetes is under control. This will allow enough time for immunizations, if you need them, and give you time to recover from any side effects. Also ask your healthcare provider to give you a letter with the following information:

  • How your diabetes is treated (diabetes pills, insulin shots)

  • All medicines and equipment needed to manage your diabetes (for example, insulin, syringes, and other medicines or devices)

  • Allergies to foods or medicine

Also have your healthcare provider give you a prescription for insulin or diabetes pills. You should take more than enough of your medicine and syringes to last through the trip with you, but, in case of emergency, the prescription may help.

Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine. Content produced by Johns Hopkins Medicine is carefully reviewed by scientists and other experts.

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A1C Test

The A1C test is a useful clinical tool for health professionals to diagnose or monitor diabetes and prediabetes in most people, but may be less accurate when testing patients with inherited hemoglobin variants, also called hemoglobinopathiesFor example, people of sub-Saharan African, Mediterranean, South, or Southeast Asian descent are more likely to have hemoglobin variants S and E,2 and these variants may interfere with some laboratory and point-of-care A1C tests. If a patient’s A1C test results are at odds with their blood glucose testing results, interference should be considered.


Reliable A1C tests are available for people with most hemoglobin variants. The NGSP External link provides information about appropriate assay methods to use in patients with hemoglobin variants. 


Source: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.


Diabetes and Dental Care

Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes can cause pain, infection, and other problems in your mouth. Your mouth includes

  • your teeth

  • your gums

  • your jaw

  • tissues such as your tongue, the roof and bottom of your mouth, and the inside of your cheeks

Glucose is present in your saliva—the fluid in your mouth that makes it wet. When diabetes is not controlled, high glucose levels in your saliva help harmful bacteria grow. These bacteria combine with food to form a soft, sticky film called plaque. Plaque also comes from eating foods that contain sugars or starches. Some types of plaque cause tooth decay or cavities. Other types of plaque cause gum disease and bad breath. 

Read More Here

Source: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.



The persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia may be caused either by a solitary tumor of the pancreas secreting excessive amount of insulin, known as insulinoma or, rarely, by nesidioblastosis.


Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. The incidence of nesidioblastosis in adults is unknown, but it is generally thought to be very low. The β cell changes in adult nesidioblastosis suggest a dysregulation of the function of the cell. The cause of the functional dysregulation in adults is unknown. The pathogenesis of adult nesidioblastosis may be different from infantile congenital hyperinsulinism caused by a genetic effect. Histologically nesidioblastosis is almost always characterized by a proliferation of abnormal β cells throughout the entire pancreas. Clinically and biochemically , it is not possible to distinguish between diffuse nesidioblastosis and insulinoma. If all highly selective noninvasive imaging techiques fail to identify a tumor, selective arterial calcium stimulation testing should be performed. The final diagnosis relies on the histopathologic evaluation. The treatment of adult nesidioblastosis is surgical resection of the pancreas.


Read More HERE

Source: National Library of Medicine. Content produced by the National Library of Medicine is carefully reviewed by scientists and other experts.


Diabetes and Gastic Bypass

Obesity is a potent risk factor for the development and progression of type 2 diabetes, and weight loss is a key component of diabetes management. Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss and remission of diabetes in most patients. After surgery, glycemic control is restored by a combination of enforced caloric restriction, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased insulin secretion.

Evidence is mounting for the use of bariatric surgery to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients whose body mass index (BMI) is 35 kg/m2 or higher. In obese patients who also have type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery sends it into remission (defined as normoglycemic control without the need for diabetic medications) in more than three-fourths of cases, with higher rates with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure than with the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedure.

However, data on the effects of this surgery on type 2 diabetes come primarily from observational studies that lacked appropriate control groups, and the relative benefit of bariatric surgery vs aggressive medical antidiabetic therapy is not yet known.

Read More Here

Source: National Library of Medicine.  Content produced by the National Library of Medicine is carefully reviewed by scientists and other experts.

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11 Things You Need to Know About Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)

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Traveling with Diabetes TSA

Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, is a potentially dangerous condition that’s most common in people with diabetes using certain medications to control a body’s blood sugars. Hypoglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels fall lower than normal and can lead to life-threating complications. If you or a loved one has recently been diagnosed with diabetes, make sure to talk with your care team about how to maintain your health in the face of this potentially fatal disease. Below, we've listed everything you need to know about hypoglycemia.

11 Things to Know About Hypoglycemia

1. What is low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia?

Your body’s blood sugar levels measure the amount of glucose present in your blood stream. Glucose is the building block of the carbohydrates you eat and is your body’s primary source of energy. Hypoglycemia is a condition in which your blood sugar (glucose) level is lower than normal.

Read More HERE


American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

Notify the Officers

When you arrive at the checkpoint, let the TSA officers know about your medical devices and any other equipment prior to screening. If you have an insulin pump, glucose monitor or other medical devices attached to your body, inform the officers where it is located before the screening process begins. Although not required, you can provide them with a TSA notification card prior to screening to discreetly describe the medical condition.

If you have questions or concerns at any time during the screening process, please ask to speak to a supervisor.

Screening Process

Passengers in standard lanes may be screened by advanced imaging technology, a metal detector, or a pat-down. If the standard lane does not have advanced imaging technology, or if you are eligible for expedited screening through TSA PreCheck®, you may be screened by a walk-through metal detector. If you do not wish to go through screening by technology, inform the TSA officer and they will conduct a pat-down. Pat-downs are conducted by a TSA officer of the same gender, and you may request a private screening at any time. 


Read More Here

Source: TSA 

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